There is no single correct and approved definition of the concept of Web3 on the Internet, or as we say – Web 3.0. Therefore, in order to understand what it is, we first analyze what Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are.
Web 1.0 (1991 – 2004)
The very concept of Web 1.0 appeared only after the concept of Web 2.0 appeared. Consequently, everything that happened on the Internet before Web 2.0 was called Web 1.0.
There was no authorization, logins and signups, no editing by users. No user interaction with the pages other than reading. And most importantly, everything was created, stored and published centrally by the site owners. Therefore, you could only receive what they decide to give you.
A huge storage of data linked to each other, and users are consumers of content.
This can be compared to a large library where you come and have the opportunity to read only those books that are there. No interaction, READ-ONLY.
There were exceptions, though. For example, Amazon.com has allowed users to write reviews and guides since its inception in 1995.
Web 2.0 (2004 – now)
The concept of Web 2.0 is commonly associated with Tim O’Reilly’s September 30, 2005 “What is Web 2.0” article. In this article, Tim O’Reilly linked the emergence of a large number of sites, united by some common principles, with the general trend of the development of the Internet community, and called this phenomenon Web 2.0, as opposed to the “old” Web 1.0. But, as with Web 1.0, there is still no single, approved definition of Web 2.0.
Web 2.0 can be called the era of targeted advertising and lack of privacy.
One of the main differences in Web 2.0 has been the emergence of social media. Social networks made it possible to post content not only to webmasters and site owners, but also to ordinary network users. We started using Facebook, YouTube, writing posts and uploading photos, and making millions of searches on Google. We share personal information with a large number of sites. We register accounts, enter our card details, make purchases.
Resource owners collect this information about us and use it in order to show us the content that we are interested in. They need us to be interested and we stay longer on their platforms, and they earn more on us. Then they thought they could not only collect this data, but sell it to advertising companies like Google Ads and make even more money.
Web 2.0 can be called the era of targeted advertising and lack of privacy. But we were ready to share personal information in order to use all these social networks, online shopping and other benefits of Web 2.0.
Problems and Disadvantages of Web 2.0
This brings us to the problems and shortcomings of Web 2.0 that led to the thought of Web 3.0.
- Even with Web 1.0, the client-server architecture is preserved, when a user accesses a server, the server issues a response or records data that the user enters. Servers belong to specific people or companies. And they can block or remove your content, simply because your opinion is not in line with their editorial policy. And all your photos from Insatgram, all your memories can be erased due to the contradictory decision of the company.
- Another problem is the transfer of your confidential data, which is then stored on someone else’s servers. They can be hacked, transferred to third parties or deliberately used for their own selfish purposes.
Thus, it became apparent that Web 2.0 needed an upgrade. Therefore, the concept of Web 3.0 enters the arena.
Web 3.0 (soon)
Web 3.0 is shaping up right now as you read this article.
Roughly speaking, Web 3.0 is a new stage in the development of the Internet, in which blockchain technologies and other decentralization tools like DAO will most likely be used. Why “most likely” because it is not yet clear whether it will be exactly the blockchain technology, or they will come up with something new, what kind of blockchain or blockchains it will be, how they will interact with each other, and so on. Too early to be certain.
Web 3.0 is a new stage in the development of the Internet, in which blockchain technologies and other decentralization tools like DAO will most likely be used.
It is also worth noting that Web 3.0 goes far beyond the Internet and fully penetrates the real world. This is an attempt to change the financial system and the principles of interaction between people, to form new rules for the operation of companies and to build a completely new world. The author of the concept of “Web 2.0” Tim O’Reilly even suggested defining Web 3.0 as “the interaction of the Internet with the physical world.”
Features of Web 3.0
But let’s go over the features of Web 3.0 that are currently known.
- First, Web 3.0 will not live on centralized servers owned by specific people or companies. It will be a distributed database that will be stored on special nodes (nodes), and anyone can become the owner of the node. Thus, no company can single-handedly delete any content, because thousands of users will have a copy of the database. Applications (App) will become Decentralized Applications (DApp).
Example: Take the same Instagram, for example. If, in Web 2.0, Meta (the owner of Instagram) wants to delete your account along with all your photos for some reason. They can do so because they have control over the server. In Web 3.0, a copy of the database will reside on a large number of nodes. And if someone tries to delete something on their own, it will conflict with the rest of the nodes and the blockchain will reject this deletion.
- The next point: most likely, all data on the network, including your content (photos, videos, pictures, etc.) can be tokenized. That is, any photo you take can have uniqueness and verified ownership, like current NFT tokens. This will make it easier for content authors to make money on it.
Example: that is, on Instagram, each of your photos can be NFT. This does not mean that you need to sell it. It simply confirms that you are the creator and owner of this image. This is the original and can be verified on the blockchain.
- The next feature of Web 3.0 is the updated Identity – the identity of the user. First, Web 3.0 allows you to surf, download, and buy without tracing your real identity. Let’s take a closer look here. There will be special services in which you will need to create and verify your digital identity. Further, when interacting with different DApps, they will definitely mean that there is a real person behind Identity, and this is your identity. Actions will be transparent and accessible to all. But it will be impossible to trace the real identity thanks to ciphering. Second, your identity in Web 3.0 will be cross-platform. That is, you will not need to register every time, you can use your identity everywhere.
- Also, thanks to Identity and tokenization, any digital items can become cross-platform. This can be understood from blockchain games. First, we remember that this is not all on a single server, but on a decentralized database. So everything that you have earned or collected in the game will not be taken away from you just like that. Plus, these will all be tokens that are tied to your identity. That is, if you find or bought a sword in the game, you can transfer it to another game, or sell it on some marketplace.
- But if Instagram in Web 3.0 can’t just remove content, what to do with a bunch of SPAM, pornography and other types of obscene content? Moderation and bans are needed, you just need to upgrade and democratize this tool. Web 3.0 assumes that all organizations, companies, services and applications will be DAOs – Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. They don’t have a CEO or board of directors. They have users who have the right to vote. It is the DAO that will determine the tariff scale and editorial policy, the amount of remuneration and punishment by voting.
- Well, speaking of Web 3.0, one cannot but say about the metaverse. This may be a topic for a separate article, and you know what to do, but now just a few words about what it is. Essentially, the metaverse is a social media upgrade from web 2.0. You will have an identity with the properties described earlier, your crypto wallet is tied to it, all your digital content. The real identity is hidden thanks to ciphering. All this is on a decentralized database and is managed through the DAO. Something like this.
Metaverse is a social media upgrade from web 2.0.
The Challenges of Moving to Web 3.0
The transition to Web 3.0 is long and difficult. After all, you need to revise the entire Internet stack, switch from generally accepted protocols http and others to new decentralized rails, change the management schemes for companies and projects to DAO. This is a huge colossus, on which the entire economy and life of the planet is now tied.
It will take time for a full-fledged WEB 3.0 to appear.
In addition, regular users also need time to switch to DApps, figure out how it all works, and so on. So all this takes time. How many? We do not know, but we will try to bring the offensive of Web 3.0 closer to the best of our ability, since this is the right vector for decentralization, democratization and privacy. In the meantime, we will use Web 2.1, Web 2.2, Web 2.3 and so on, until the very Web 3.0 arrives.
Frequently asked Questions:
What is Web. 3.0?
Web 3.0 is something that will not live on centralized servers owned by specific people or companies. It will be a distributed database that will be stored on special nodes, and anyone can become the owner of the node. Thus, no company can single-handedly delete any content, because thousands of users will have a copy of the database.
What is dApp?
dApp – decentralized applications. This is what common applications will be called when the era of Web 3.0 arrives.
What is DAO?
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. They don’t have a CEO or board of directors. They have users who have the right to vote. It is the DAO that will determine the tariff scale and editorial policy, the amount of remuneration and punishment by voting.
Disclaimer: This article is not investment advice. Assess the risks yourself before making any investment decisions.